THE FOURTHWAY MANHO E-JOURNAL
Volume 141       March 4, 2021
 

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS, AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT, SCIENTIFIC CAPITALISM, SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM AND SCIENTISM

By Professor  Dr. Tan Man-Ho

(An revised excerpt from the original work, Real World Views, Book 2,  by Professor  Dr. Tan Man-Ho entitled "Biocosmic Nervo-Reflectant and the Theory of Material Reflection in Man; Inner Development and Social Upheavals", July 1973 - September 1974 Discourses, Chapter 2, Section D: 'Scientific Revolutions, Age of Enlightenment, Scientific Capitalism, Scientific Socialism and Scientism" pp. 22 ~ 34)

 

 

D.  SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS, AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT, SCIENTIFIC CAPITALISM, SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM AND SCIENTISM

 

1   There is a scientist aphilosophization leading to scientistic philosophy (so-called scientism) of our days but now still not complete.  The philosophy of scientism of the scientists of today is nevertheless still incomplete and much wrapped by feudal religion, idealism and capitalistic materialism, and even the great scientists from the famous Scientific Revolution in Medieval  Europe that started with Copernicus (1543 AD) until the Age of Reason and final Age of Enlightenment in Renaissance Europe with many more emerging great scientists and thinkers along the historical timeline that began in the 16th century into the 19th century and from there to the 20th century of the American Continent and the 21st century of China today.  The earlier scientific revolutions could only present a philosophy of natural, physical and cosmic sciences through the mirror of their own tainted selves laying a very strong foundation for the scientific reasoning of the Age of Enlightenment I of the late 19th century where the new scientific reasoning ventured deeper into the cosmological, social, economic, political, ethical, legal and backward manual-handicraft production domains of the feudal stronghold of religion, sociocultural and the absolute monarchial power and created capitalist democratic/republic revolutions there.  Further scientific revolutions that occurred also with more and deeper findings in sociological, sociocosmic and technocosmic science and technology and greater use of reasoning in man leading to the Age of Monopoly Capitalism, colonialism, fascism, Nazism and Imperialism that created more coup, overthrows, revolutions and wars of conquest and independence including the infamous World War Zero, World War I and World War II which ended in 1945 where the Age of Benightedness due to ‘knowledge-and-being’ obfuscation began that led to a series of Cold Wars and specific surgical wars and wars against terrorism took place    …. in wait for a possible coming of a new Age of Enlightenment II of Integrated (unified) Scientific Revolutions in the minds of man.

It is better to explain everything in this present state of human affairs than to isolate some and analyzing them as unconnected fragments without knowing that it is a part of the whole and also changing itself as history moves on.  To analyze parts and generalizing them is essential but to integrate it (scientism) into the whole is more important.  In order to understand science it is important to study the history of nature and society, and the history of the evolution of scientific ideas and its revolutionary impact on the present 3 Technocosmic Revolutions and a coming 4th Technocosmic Revolution.

Views from the Real World would opine that in order to correctly understand this “scientism”, we shall include seeing it (scientism) objectively and not merely only subjectively with aplenty good hundreds of links, associations and findings-of-facts of this science and that science(s) real and imagined or connections to all the hydrogens of the actively increasing quantities and qualities of the emerging sciences from the respective gravity-centers of vibration only and solely to the body of a real biocosmic man bearing the name scientist stand reasoning actively everyday transmitting and influencing of this historically emerging hydrogens of sciences together with all his possible productive social relational forces for which these same hydrogens of all kinds of sciences will be “deposited” and vibrating as psyche beings of the world of sciences - 7 fundamental sociocosmic stopinders as well as all his 2 lateral sociocosmic stopinders.  The hydrogens of the world of sciences breeds when having acquire qualities soon expand quantitatively leading to the now varieties of scientific mind fragments known as “sciences” whose source being is from the intellectual center inside of the living man and only man as he digested and processes the three being-foods from its surrounding environment to produce these sciences and scientism.  Knowing that all other non-human biocosmic beings around us do not have hydrogens of sciences and even the humans who do not have enough of quality hydrogens of science and scientism, we are now ready standing on our legs and rooted ourselves to the earthly soil without much distractions and ado with flying on airs and over exaggerations on science and its scientism.  Because the human body has other gravity-center of vibrations co-existing such as the lower and higher intellectual centers where our science and scientism dwell, the higher and lower emotional centers, the instinctive, moving and sex centers where science and scientism is not its source-home, and this is important, the vibrations and influences from these centers become the mystical husk or aura to the hydrogens of sciences when they over-stressed themselves and weaken their strength and become scientism.  This mystical husk turn ‘–ism’ –like and if higher intellectual thought is also involved the mystical husk also acquires the property of ‘philosophy-of’ or ‘thought reflection-on’ or ‘deep-feeling-of’ these hydrogens of science with much further wiseacrings – if only they are found in your body and  you need to Know Thyself to discover, to know and understand it.  Science and scientism as superstructure beings rested on the forces of production, distribution, consumption and recycling and will certainly feed on other superstructure disciplines (non-science objects and subjects) and at the same time jockeying to become the dominating lau beings.  This existence and behavior of science and scientism as a powerful dominating gravity-center of superstructure vibration over its earlier religions of the earlier RE-historical period of feudalism is unlikely to disappear over a very long period of times.  Nay more, the development of this science and scientism as a Marxian superstructure becomes a historicism for the FA-SO-LA-TI historical periods of capitalism and socialism, and this happens at the end of the Age of Pisces (1788 AD – 2148 AD) and would certainly continue to the historical periods of socialism and communism and the historical periods of communism and Datong in Age of Aquarius (2148AD – 4296AD).  Attempts by other superstructure species of being psyche hydrogens of politics, law, arts, religions, culture, economy, etc. have all been doused with the science and scientism not that it is able to do itself but happens because man’s lower and higher thinking center especially its faculty of reasoning has become gravity-center of vibration and a material force to be reckon amongst all other weaker gravity-center vibrations of the superstructure.

Scientific capitalism is a phenoumenon in the realm of the intergrated sociotechnocosmic octave whereby science assets from the productive forces in the form of instruments of production, distribution, consumption and recvycling whether intangibles scientific research ideas or tangible scientific inventions for production, distribution, consumption and recycling goals are accumulated and deposited by three-brained beings as ownerships and exclusive rights along the 1st lateral sociocosmic octave at the MI-FA Interval of the Fundamental Sociocosmic Octave – the capitalistic form of which is when the science assets of others become the exclusive ownership of a sole proprietor (Do) or a partnership (Re) or a private limited company (Mi) or a public limited (Fa) or  a cooperative (So) or a privatized government-linked company (La) and a state/national organization (Ti).

Scientific socialism is a phenoumenon in the realm of the intergrated sociotechnocosmic octave whereby science assets from the productive forces in the form of instruments of production, distribution, consumptoion and recycling whether intangibles scientific research ideas or tangible scientific inventions for production, distribution, consumption and recycling goals are accumulated and deposited by three-brained beings as ownerships and exclusive rights along the 2nd lateral sociocosmic octave at the TI-DO Interval of the Fundamental Sociocosmic Octave – the socialistic form of which is when the science assets of the many and of others are recognized, rewarded and shared  within the common/public ownership of a state organization (Do) or a nation organization (Re) or a nation-group/united nations organization (Mi) or as humanity-at-large/shared common ownership of the means of production, distribution, consumption and recycling (Fa).

Both scientific capitalism and scientific socialism is a sociocosmic phenoumenon within one of the historical context known as the FA-SO-LA-TI of Historical Periods of Capitalism and Socialism that began in the Age of Pisces Tai-End 1788AD through 2148 AD calibrated astrological period in wait of the next higher historical sociocosmic species which must be a substantial upgrade/betterment and more powerful to the current problematic sociocosmic species of scientific capitalism.  This next higher historical species can only emerge when its now 2nd lateral sociocosmic octave at TI-DO Interval of this FA-SO-LA-TI of Historical Periods of Capitalism and Socialism becomes the 1st lateral sociocosmic octave at the MI-FA Interval in the next higher historical periods known as the DO-Historical Periods of Socialism and Communism where private ownership of the means of production, distribution, consumption and recycling alone is no longer the main gravity-center of vibration and of accumulation of wealth or of happiness but more of a gravity-center of troubles, headaches and meaningless owning of everything under heaven and earth where administration and power-without-owning of the public properties becomes a dominating gravity-center of this coming model ….. and the unfinished sociocosmic history will still have to go on unfortunately.

(Note added on March 4, 2021)

 

2   Each state has its own way.  Contradiction leading to severe friction is still going on between the bourgeoisie and the Feudal remnant with the former on the winning end.  The reactionary fight, now open, now hidden did not stop after numerous negation of negation.  One uses astrological conceptions to organize and manage society while the other uses science and technology.  The Feudal is re-incarnating into the management of psychology, harmony, balance and peace to save and re-assert itself in the new order under a different form.  The feudal monkism is negated by the bourgeois scientism and technoism and negated again into socialism and holism.

 

3   The fact is that scientism has a bigger coverage for knowledge and truth but it cannot cover all.  It is the best tool available but there is still a better tool to complement it in case it cannot explain the emerging new.  The wisdom of scientism is central at what we called the scientific method.

By scientific method is meant a strict set of techniques used for investigating phenomena that is on something in the outer world of man, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.  The method involves inquiries which are based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning essentially formal logical reasoning or dialectical reasoning.  The method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.

Belief distorts observations.  People with a particular belief will often see things as reinforcing their belief, even if to another observer they would appear not to be so.  The first observation may have been a little imprecise, whereas the second and third were "adjusted to the facts," until tradition, education, and familiarity produce a readiness for new perception.  People observe what they expect to observe, until shown otherwise; our beliefs will affect our observations.  Reasoning can be flawed.  Reasoning is the mentating process of looking for reasons (logics), beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings.  It itself is a mystical route, surely flaw-able.  We have such being emoting-reasoning species belonging to the Pre-Age of Enlightenment of Reason but normally called the Age of Enlightenment of the Hearts breeding in the physical brains of man everywhere in the world during the astrological Age of Aries and the Age of Pisces bearing the names - Babylonian enlightenment, Greek reasoning, Indian enlightenment, Buddhist enlightenment, Chinese enlightenment, Christian enlightenment, Islamic enlightenment and legal school reasoning, and those emoting-reasoning methods common to all these historical specimens.  The scientific capitalism is full of deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, adductive reasoning, analogical reasoning, fallacious and formal logic coated with thick layers of bourgeois feelings and desires of wealth accumulation.

When the scientific method of the Age of Enlightenment is applied to the nuomena the monks and the yogi give you an uncertain smile because the method you used is more suitable for investigating phenomena and inadequate for nuomena.  You need to develop a better psychological tool for that.  The monks and the yogis have it although it might need to be improved.  This is where the difference between esoteric scientism and western scientism lies.

The more scientific experiments you carried out the better it is your theories, your ideas and your experience about nature.

Scientific capitalism is the name we give to all scientism(s) that emerge within  capitalist/bourgeiosie dominating scientific/reasoning paradigms at the MI-FA Interval of the FA-SO-LA-TI historical periods while Scientific socialism is the scientism(s) that arise within the socialist/proletariat dominating scientific/reasoning paradigms at the TI-DO Interval in opposition to the scientific capitalism of the same historical periods and awaiting a third historical resolution of the next historical period.

 

4   Our external bourgeoisie, (English and French bourgeoisie) not contend with mollifying the scientific outlook, has also give to life a “scientific” idealistic philosophical doctrine over the real world science of the proletarians who are in direct contact with the productive system.  What the proletarians demand is scientific materialistic philosophy that rests on practice.  This is where the difference between bourgeois scientism which centered round the philosophy of capitalist exploitation and proletarian scientism lies which centered round the philosophy of anti-capitalistic exploitation.  Although the philosophy of the bourgeois scientist is false, nevertheless, this does not mean that they will fail in their practice as its specifics and details are correct, true and factual, and common for all irrespective of boundaries.

The proletarian way of looking at science is different from the bourgeois way of looking at science – one in the mirror philosophy of the oppressed while the other in the mirror philosophy of the oppressor in spite of the fact that science is always a stand-alone-of-facts-and-truths.   But hungry and greedy men matters!  As a necessary weapon but indispensable from productive forces.  The bourgeoisie also see science as a weapon but as a gift from nowhere!  In particular, the foods of the bourgeoisie tend to come from nowhere, but the proletarians see the food evolving out of the working men’s labor, and in the 18th and 19th Centuries they responded in the manner of the Luddites.

 

5   The bourgeois scientism distorts reality into a fancy of philosophical scientism.  It is said physics has proved to us that our perception is quite unreliable.  What appear real to us may be illusions.  Undoubtedly, what God appears to the man on the way may be proved to be hallucinations later on but useful if it can be used for private benefits and wealth accumulation.

 

6   Physics emphasizes more on quantitative changes rather than on qualitative changes.  When physicists write their books, they start with qualitative consideration but soon end up with much quantitative exposition.  Every change is a change on measure and little qualitative “leaps” are not noticed because they are not trained to see them.

 

7   What precisely did Engels meant by writing “Revolution in Science.”  He had to clean science off bourgeois idealistic scientism.  Each day it becomes more and more necessary to write something about idealistic scientism, Darwin, Marx, Wagner and others.  But when you are sleepy, they are never mentioned or given importance.  The world stage is filled with cheap pseudo figures especially during the Age of Benightedness.

 

8   The truth of scientific progress:

The scientific progress of mankind, hitherto, is a matter of the struggle for survival, for survival of mankind with right facts, right reasoning and leading to right results.  The science and technological assets belong to mankind and is his heritage for the survival of his successors.  Human knowledge will infinitely increase and the brain’s mind will constantly subject to change.  Thanks to Marx and Darwin for their greatness, the pursuit for correct knowledge of nature is but a necessity.  One of the main ways mankind can gather correct knowledge of nature is by the scientific method.  In this very process of evolution some ideas are false and some are true.  But the false ideas constantly survive the change and create the antithesis within the mind – between truth and falsehood.  He who is a scientific man, therefore, stands in contradiction to the falsehood.  But wrong ideas come only to follow the law of its negation being negated because it is false and negated again because from the falsehood an emerging truth will be born again although quite different.

Nature is but a proof of dialectics.  The ultimate aim of mankind is to trace the inner laws of the colossal dialectical movement.  By nature, man will soon trace and determine its relations, its concatenations and its rings of expansion.  This is the only road man will choose for its struggle for survival.  We therefore say science and technology is the most powerful weapon for man in his struggle for survival.  He who loses this weapon will be become obsolete.  Therefore, man must be conscious of this very fact.

Why the necessity for tracing the inner law?  It is because with the adequate knowledge of nature mankind will be able to predict or better still prophesize the fate of our very earth; all but for the sake of the struggle for survival.  This is the law of nature so far known to us, hitherto.

9   The reduction of matter (matter as it appears to the brain) into mere particles or atomos (or modern shapes of atoms and later sub-atomos of the inner content of atoms) and to maintain this as the sole attribute of matter, necessarily ignores the forms to which matter has appeared (e.g. in motional form, etc.). This leads to the conception of matter as mere aggregation of particles and the motion as attraction or repulsion or mere force and to the conception of two separate entities, force and particles.  Force is often conceived as simple ‘lines’ for propelling motion.  The origin of these forces is explained from the interaction of matter or material particles.  In other words what is intended to be the cause of motion is the particles lie in the motion due to the interaction of these particles themselves.

But the very phenomenon which characterize biological internal processes ‘the reason behind particular forms of matter’ the fact that matter and its forms cannot be separated belongs to the science of ‘material contradiction’.  A solution as to how contradiction of matter works can be discovered.  Social processes and biological processes belong to the higher form of material science ……. in lower sciences ‘interaction’ is a feature of its theory, in higher sciences ‘contradiction and reflection’ is the fore.  But the very phenomenon which characterize biological internal processes ‘the reason behind particular forms of matter’ the fact that matter and its forms cannot be separated belongs to the science of ‘material contradiction’.  A solution as to how contradiction of matter works can be discovered.  Social processes and biological processes belong to the higher form of material science ……. in lower sciences ‘interaction’ is a feature of its theory, in higher sciences ‘contradiction and reflection’ is the fore.

Real Science without pollution of the olds is the only Great Enlightened Light of our age and of our time to provide the objective guide for the survival and wellbeing of Humanity-at-Large!

 

 

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